Data on 85 middle-aged triathletes showed 18% of the men but none of the women had signs of myocardial fibrosis or scarring of the heart, according to a study that is to be presented at the Radiological Society of North America's annual meeting. Earlier studies have shown myocardial fibrosis in elite athletes, and researchers said while they do not know the exact cause, factors could include increased blood pressure during exercise and the duration of races.
Some military surgeons are performing so few procedures, even when deployed, that their skills are at risk of declining, but the DOD is taking steps to address the problem, say Col. Mary Edwards and Col. Shawn Nessen, consultants to the Army Surgeon General. "There is a definite level of awareness that operative volumes are critically important for surgeon readiness and that this needs to be quantified and evaluated prior to deployment," the colonels wrote in an email.
Researchers discovered that wild bonobos are susceptible to malaria parasites and identified previously unknown Laverania species that is specific to bonobos but only in a limited area. "It seems likely that these parasites co-evolved with African apes, suggesting that the ancestors of bonobos were infected, and implying that most wild-living communities of bonobos have somehow lost their malaria parasites," said Paul Sharp, co-author of the study, which is published in Nature Communications.
A study in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that giving 7.5 mg of oral insulin daily to relatives of type 1 diabetes patients did not prevent them from developing the disease, compared with those on placebo. Researchers analyzed data from 389 individuals, 57.6% of whom had a sibling with diabetes, and did find that type 1 diabetes developed later among a subgroup of patients with autoantibodies and low insulin secretion who took oral insulin compared with those who took a placebo.
Researchers examined healthy adults ages 65 and older and found that those who received speed-of-thought processing training using a computer program were 29% less likely to develop dementia over 10 years, compared with those who didn't undergo any training, and those who received information on memory or problem-solving strategies did not have a reduced risk of long-term dementia. The study in Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions also showed that more speed-processing training sessions were tied to even lower odds of dementia, researchers said.
The rate of emergency department visits for self-harm treatment among US girls ages 10 to 24 rose by 8.4% annually between 2009 and 2015, with the rate of ED visits for self-harm among those ages 10 to 14 increasing by 18.8% annually during the same period, according to a CDC study in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The findings should prompt increased efforts aimed at curbing self-injury among youths, researchers said.
Researchers found that youths with standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent experimental reduced delayed intensification chemotherapy with 30% lower cumulative dexamethasone dose and 50% lower doses of vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide had a higher eight-year relapse rate. In addition, they had lower rates of eight-year disease-free and overall survival, compared with those who received the standard DI protocol. The findings were published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes developed pancreatic exocrine dysfunction after initiation of islet cell autoimmunity, compared with the control group, according to a study in Pediatric Diabetes. Researchers used a cohort of 106 children with and without diabetes and found that defects in pancreatic exocrine function develop "during the progression of islet autoimmunity to clinical type 1 diabetes," while elastase levels may be used as a biomarker of exocrine pancreas function.
Cancer patients need good nutrition to maintain energy and strength, so while eating may be difficult due to chemotherapy or radiation side effects, it should be considered part of the treatment plan, says registered dietitian nutritionist Katherine Pett. It's not the time to optimize a healthy diet, however, Pett says, so cancer patients should shoot for good nutrition but eat the foods they can tolerate.
Dietitians say it is important to have a diet and exercise strategy for the Thanksgiving holiday that addresses workouts before dinner, alcohol consumption, lighter recipes and leftovers. Registered dietitian Tamara Duker Freuman advises people to eat a balanced breakfast on Thanksgiving and a midday snack, if needed, to avoid being too hungry when sitting down to dinner.
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